Monday, May 25, 2020

Crossfit Marketing Plan - 1365 Words

1) Industry overview Still Needs - -increase in industry sale? -describe why it is still in the growth stage over the maturity stage. The health and fitness industry is a continuously growing industry. The fitness industry has doubled in size over the last 10 years, and is a $17.6 billion industry. North America has over 25,000 health clubs currently. Entrepreneur magazine named the fitness category the fifth hottest franchising trend in 2005 and since 2005 has continued to grow. There is also consistent growth of the young-adult population which is our primary target market. Cross-fit falls under the fitness category it is creates a broad desire for many people. Cross-fit creates desire for social activity, which creates a†¦show more content†¦Promotional Strategy: The main and most important factor in having a successful affiliate is creating a strong crossfit community for all who work out in the gym. That is how the promotional strategies should be used.Tools for such work are various and should be focused on making people want to join a community of like minded people who are committed to living a healthy lifestyle and enjoying a quality of life. The great thing about promoting crossfit is that none of the regular promotion strategies are ones that would really apply to using the model as a way of getting people interested. Community builidng cannot be put onto a fancy flyer or catchy ad. The community must be built inside the gym as well as have a profile within the community. These two things will lead to people who are members of the gym spreading the word about our affiliate and getting their friends to join the gym. Since this would be a startup, it would be important to create awareness of what crossfit is and why it is done. The eff ort would have to be made to arrange to demonstrate to people how the program can change their approach to fitness. This could be done by finding people and friends that are in good shape to go out and work out with them. Get them to try the crossfit methodology and see how they feel. The second approach would be to get as muchShow MoreRelatedMock Business Plan - Crossfit5933 Words   |  24 PagesVALLEY CROSSFIT Chris Chapple Business Plan MG 530 4/30/2012 Table of Contents: 1. Executive Summary a. Mission Statement b. Company Information c. Service d. Financial Information e. Future Plans 2. Description of the Business f. Nature of the Business g. Target Market h. How Product/Services Meet Needs 3. Competitive Analysis i. CrossFit Gyms j. Other Gyms 4. Industry Description and Outlook 5. Marketing Plan k.Read MoreSwot Analysis Of Williams Emporium1212 Words   |  5 PagesThe marketing plan begins with a situation analysis: a description of our current state of affairs and possible changes to that status quo. We present strategic choices in customer segments to pursue and the market position that we seek to achieve to best serve them. Williams Emporium consists of a regional chain of specialty food stores, focusing on organic products, fruits and vegetables, with an emphasis on healthy pre-made meals. The Williams Emporium will embody the contemporary healthy lifestyleRead MorePhysical Education And An Obesity Epidemic4942 Words   |  20 Pages2 Running Head: UISD, CrossFit, Behavioral Innovations ​Current Situations of CrossFit, UISD, and Behavioral Innovations Ryan Bender, Ashley Light, Jacob Olivarez Texas AM International University Abstract Children are suffering from setbacks in areas of academics, exercise physical education and an obesity epidemic. There are many distractions which contribute to these areas. Attacking these issues by clearing out the disturbances is the goal of educatorsRead MoreCaca Cola Marketing706 Words   |  3 PagesApproximately 80-90% of new product marketing and innovation projects fail (Brooks, 2017). Furthermore, many consumers have disagreed with many of the Coca-Cola Co.’s marketing techniques. For example, consumers emphatically rejected the Coca-Cola Co.’s efforts to market and sell its BlaK coffee beverage (Brooks, 2017). With respect to promoting healthy eating (and drinking) habits, the University of California-San Francisco (â€Å"UCSF†) is an example of an institution that successfully engaged inRead Morereebok segmentation1743 Words   |  7 Pages Segmenting, Targeting and Positioning: Segmenting Reebok has been a market leader for many years in the sports shoes . It has been able to achieve it through its efficient and effective marketing strategies. Reebok used innovative strategies as per the consumer needs . Reebok segmented the market on the following parameters: Geography: Reebok chose to operate on Pan country basis. where it segmented locations as per the consumers needs. The attribute requirement of the product in one regionRead MoreStrategies of Adidas2281 Words   |  10 PagesStrategies of ADIDAS Global Brands is responsible for all the product and marketing functions and long-term development of the adidas and Reebok brands. The primary objective of this portfolio strategy is to ensure that our brands seize market and category opportunities through well-defined and coordinated go-to-market strategies. Each brand is responsible for the execution of its strategic focus by creating a constant stream of innovative and inspiring products and generating communication strategiesRead MoreNike: Blue Ribbon Sports by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight in 1964974 Words   |  4 PagesEurope. They even name their strategy as SPORT (Selling, Planning, Operating, Relationships, and Training). Furthermore, adidas owns Reebok which is the leading fitness brand in the world. Reebok collaborates with some niche fitness programs, such as CrossFit, Spartan Race, and Les Mills, that already take the world by storm. adidas is undoubtedly a tough competitor for NIKE, especially with its speed and agility. Nevertheless, NIKE is still the market leader for sport footwear, apparel, and equipmentRead MoreMarketing Mix Strategy For N orth Shore Gym1665 Words   |  7 PagesMarketing Mix Strategy Product North Shore gym is able to offer a wide variety of services that will contribute to a healthy lifestyle. If the gym is utilized to it’s maximum potential, customers will be able to recognize changes in their body, as well as their lifestyle, which will push them to continue making positive strides in their life. With our wide-range of classes, qualified personal trainers, dietary plans, state-of-the-art equipment, our members will have all the tools they need to succeedRead MoreCompetitive Analysis1601 Words   |  7 Pagesmonitoring. Factors The interesting part about the BitFit is that it can be marketed to any age group for the most part, barring toddlers. We currently live in a society that strives to push healthy eating and every street you walk down there is a CrossFit facility. Although obesity might be on a rampant rage we believe that our product, the BitFit will allow for interaction to play a huge role in getting adults, kids, and elderly people alike to start paying attention to what they are doing to theirRead MoreCharacteristics Of Emerging Industries1738 Words   |  7 Pagesorganisation and it is often centred around a new technology. The barriers of entry in emerging industries could be low because of the somewhat limited competition and it may be difficult to secure immediate financing to grow and develop. Their marketing expenses usually are high, as the idea, product or service is often unproven and the organisations in an emerging industry need to convince investors, financers and consumers that the idea, product or service, which they are selling is actually valuable

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Management Plan For Patients With Cancer - 853 Words

. I was requested, by many staff, to return again. †¢ Commended for efficiently arranging patient disposition, thus minimising disruption to flow. †¢ First on-call for consultation of a variety of ED referrals, which required prioritisation, patient assessment, investigation requests, patient flow awareness and instituting management plans. †¢ Co-ordinated transfers via RFDS to tertiary hospitals for complex patients while managing up to 23 patients with my supervisor. †¢ Commended by rural GPs whom I phoned prior to patient discharge to enable an effective handover. †¢ Recognised for completing quality discharge letters, leaving pending summaries to a record low. †¢ Worked efficiently for preparation of, and during, fortnightly multidisciplinary meetings that discussed management for patients with cancer. My performance was commended by my Professors. ïÆ'Ëœ To complete the Medical Service Improvement Program at Rockingham General Hospital in 2016. ïÆ'Ëœ Involved in DVT prophylaxis and APACHE audit in ICU SJOG Murdoch in 2015. ïÆ'Ëœ Involved in the National Stroke Foundation Audit 2015 at Fiona Stanley Hospital with Dr Ghia and Gill Edmonds (CNS) which aims to evaluate the process in stroke management. ïÆ'Ëœ AHC antimicrobial stewardship program 2014: this audit examined the use of intraoperative antibiotics used by anaesthetists. I was involved in creating local guidelines for intraoperative antibiotics. I presented this information to the regional anaesthetists with Chief Pharmacist MsShow MoreRelatedCancer Pain Management And The Role Of Social Work855 Words   |  4 Pagesthis article â€Å"Cancer pain management and the role of social work: Barriers and interventions,† will increase social workers’ awareness of the pervasiveness of cancer-related pain. (Scott Reeves, 2010) It is vital for a social worker to identify the barriers and develop a plan of intervention that include; communication, assessment, problem solving, and psychological support. The quality of life has become more and more significant in the management of cancer. Patients with cancer are survivingRead MoreA Study On Lung Cancer1329 Words   |  6 Pageswhich recently has been diagnosed with Metastatic Lung Cancer. Lung cancer itself accounts for killing an estimated 1.5 million people annually worldwide (Keshamouni,, 2009). Lung cancer is divided into two major types: Non-small-cell cancer which includes these types of cancers; adenocarcinoma, squamous cell and large-cell, these all account to 80% of cases. The second major type is the Small-cell lung cancer which includes these cancers; oat cell, intermediate and combined, all of which onlyRead MoreEffects Of The Diagnosis Of Bowel Cancer915 Words   |  4 PagesGoldwasser (2009) accepted that being diagnosed with cancer comes as a terrible shock for most people and those affected may look back on the experience and remember it as all being a bit of a dream. Often they are given information that they are only able to take in part of what they are told. As the news sinks in and they are ready to talk about what is going to happen, the most important thing to remember is that it is their body they are discussing. People must be allowed to make decisionsRead MoreDisease Case Study730 Words   |  3 Pages insomnia, hirsutism, thinning hair, and digestion problems. Labs need to be drawn to evaluate LH, prolactin, and TSH level. Her TSH being elevated may very well be the reason for this patient’s abnormal bleeding. Lab work will help diagnose the patient with a hormone issue. This diagnosis cannot be ruled out at this time. 2. Fibroids: Fibroids are benign growths that are hormone dependent. They are seen in 25% of women in reproductive years. If diagnosed with this condition, it usually will improveRead MoreNursing Care Plan: Terminal Illness and End-of-Life1639 Words   |  7 PagesNursing Care Plan: Terminal Illness and End-of-Life Lisa White Western Governors University Community and Population Health SZT 2 September 07, 2013 Nursing Care Plan: Terminal Illness and End-of-Life Personal Perceptions Quality of life is an individual concept that is different for each person. Personal perception of quality of life may differ from the reality of one’s life. My perception of quality of life and health promotion include a close relationship with spouse and familyRead MoreInteractive Health Communication Applications ( Ichas )1486 Words   |  6 Pagesare internet-based patient centered support systems designed to enhance patient-clinician partnerships. Variable differences between the presentations of symptoms can impact a patient’s subjective experience of illness. Frequent questions and concerns about symptom management and self-care increase the demand for health care services. The rising demand for interactive healthcare calls for advanced tools to provide reliable advice, education, and social support that can help patients actively participateRead MorePain Management in the Oncology Patient1605 Words   |  6 PagesPain Management in the Oncology Patient â€Æ' Title of research article Gropelli, T., Sharer, J. (2013). Nurses Perceptions of Pain Management in Older Adults. MEDSURG Nursing, 22(6), 375-382. Type of research study Qualitative Purpose of study The purpose of this study was to focus on nurses’ perceptions about chronic and acute pain in long-term care. Limited research exists regarding the attitudes of pain management and there is a need indicated to focus on nurses’ perceptions about chronicRead MoreContinuity Of Care For Different Multi Disciplinary Teams Essay1667 Words   |  7 Pagesfrom the point of view of patients and providers. It is mainly related to the satisfaction of patients with both facets of interpersonal and coordination of care. Traditionally, continuity of health care is perceived as the endless relationship between the patients and identified health care providers. However, continuity of care cannot be evaluated mainly through the experiences and testimonials of patients because it is entangled to other aspects such as case management and multidisciplinary teamRead MoreCare And The Cancer Patient1577 Words   |  7 PagesAND THE CANCER PATIENT Approach to Care and the Cancer Patient Jennifer Swartz Grand Canyon University NRS 410 October 28, 2012 Approach to Care and the Cancer Patient â€Å"When it comes to cancer care, studies suggest that survival rates improve for patients when they are cared for by a multidisciplinary team† (Approach to Care, 2012, p. 1). This quote from the Wilmot Cancer Center’s article on how to approach care with cancer patients sums up two key pieces in approaching cancer care. FirstRead MoreEssay on Mens Health 1674 Words   |  7 Pagesis defined as the holistic management of health conditions and risks that are most common or specific to men in order to promote optimal physical, emotional and social health’. Male sexual health is important, however, men’s health goes beyond sexual and reproductive health (The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners 2007). Skills are developed by nurses allowing them to treat patients in all of the different levels of disease prevention. By conducting a patient health assessment a nurse

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Fat Tax On Junk Food - 930 Words

The idea of implementing Fat Tax on junk food in the U.S. has been in the works for quite some time. California is first in the nation to implement the â€Å"fat tax†. This tax will be applied to any items containing more than 2.3% saturated fat, including, dairy products such as cheese and milk, processed foods, pizza, soda, and candy. The purpose of such a tax is to deter consumers from purchasing these unhealthy foods and lower the obesity rate. According to Ogden, Carroll, Kit and Flegal (2014), â€Å"prevalence of obesity in the United States is high, with one-third of adults and 17% of children obese† (â€Å"Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States†, 2014).The number of obese children is alarming, albeit, significant measures have been taken in schools to provide healthier meals. Unfortunately, there is little guidance when it comes to food choices at home. Fat tax on junk food will provide consumers with the guidance and encouragement nee ded to make healthier food choices. There is much controversy when it comes to these taxes and many oppose same. Steven Kurlander, an attorney and blogger for the Huffington Post, is clearly not in favor of implementing fat taxes and refers to these taxes as â€Å"really nothing more than taxes we overweight Americans really can’t afford to pay† (â€Å"Fat Taxes Won’t Slim Down Americans†, 2013†). Kurlander comes across a bit combative and bias but more importantly, he contradicts himself. He compares â€Å"fat tax† to the â€Å"sin tax† whichShow MoreRelatedJunk Food Tax1385 Words   |  6 PagesJunk Food tax is defined asâ€Å"taxing less nutritional value food such as sugary pop while food with high nutritional value will not be taxed.† (Rupert Taylor, 2009). Junk Food is generally consumed by people with a wide range of ages, a majority of children, adults or even elderly love consuming junk food. It is likely to say tha t junk food contains quite a lot of fat and food additives which have low nutritional value and bad to our health. Research appears to show (Dr. Michael Booth, 2009) that theRead MoreObesity : Obesity And Obesity Essay1508 Words   |  7 PagesAlthough it is well known that junk food leads to health risks and obesity, people are still putting unhealthy food into their body daily.   The United States has the highest obesity rate in the world by 6% and the government should be helping to lower that percentage (   The best for the United States to help the obesity rate is by implementing a fat tax.   A fat tax is a tax on foods that are considered unhealthy and are believed to leadRead MoreThe Issue Of Obesity Among The United Kingdom Government1209 Words   |  5 Pagesgovernment. Some argue that a tax increase on unhealthy food should be implemented by the government in order to increase health levels across the U K, particularly those of children- for whom the current nationwide obesity problem is the most worrying. However, it is not certain whether implementing this tax will be economically viable. By evaluating the repercussions of introducing this tax on welfare and efficiency, this report will assess whether or not this tax is economically justifiable. BackgroundRead MoreShould The Government Add Extra Tax On Junk Foods? Essay1315 Words   |  6 PagesGovernment Add Extra Tax on Junk Foods? The rate of junk and fatty food consumption has grown in the United States compared to the past few decades. Lifestyle reports indicate that one of the primary issues that were altered is the type of diet that people consume. Currently, it seems like many people eat junk foods almost daily. Junk food refers to any diet that has insufficient nutritional value and unhealthy ingredients. The U.S. government should add extra taxes to junk foods to promote a healthierRead MoreMalnutrition : The Common Misconception1290 Words   |  6 Pagesnutrition resulting from insufficient food, unbalanced diet, or defective assimilation . Malnutrition can be caused by starvation, medical conditions, an unbalanced diet, or problems with digestion or absorption. Junk food is one of the leading causes of malnutrition since most of its calories come from sugar and fat, not necessary vitamins or minerals, so a junk food tax should be put into place. This tax would make junk food, and some other non-nutri tional food, more expensive than the produce thatRead MoreThe Implementation Of A Fat Tax1158 Words   |  5 Pages The implementation of a â€Å"Fat Tax† is a topic that has been considered before in the UK. This is an additional tax on junk food, seeking to reduce the consumption of products containing high levels of fats, sugars and cholesterol. One of the primary considerations for such a tax is the scale of the obesity problem in the UK. Today’s obesity level in the UK is three times the 1980s level, currently 24.9% and is the highest in Europe ( 2015). The extent of the UK confectionery market size, whichRead MoreEssay On Fighting Obesity Through Taxation1408 Words   |  6 PagesFighting obesity through taxation: Are fat-taxes effective? 1. Introduction The global growing number of obese among adults and children is alarming and is one of the biggest public health issues that health systems are facing (Laura Cornelsen et al. 2014). In 2014 adults overweight prevalence was estimated at 1.9 billion worldwide of these 600 million were obese and this number keeps increasing at a noticeable pace. Nearly one-thirds of the world population is obese or overweight and 41 millionRead MoreA Brief Note On Unfair Taxing Of Food1268 Words   |  6 Pages Unfair Taxing of Food Miraaj Pirali Houston Baptist University â€Æ' Food is a necessity. People must eat to stay alive. However, what people eat is completely up to them. There are people that prefer to eat healthy and stay fit, and then there are those that that prefer an unhealthy and sedentary lifestyle. Those that lead an unhealthy lifestyle tend to eat foods high in fats, sugars, and unhealthy chemicals. Foods such as these cause obesity and other health related problems. There are manyRead MoreThe Obesity Epidemic in the United States664 Words   |  3 Pagesnationality. Some obese countries have enforced an extra high tax on fast foods and other high calorie foods, and many people believe that the U.S. should adopt the fat tax as well. According to, the fat tax is â€Å"a tax imposed on or proposed for high-fat or otherwise unhealthy foodstuffs†. Although a tax on junk food could reduce obesity, the low prices could protect low income families from going broke, and therefore a tax on junk food would not be beneficial to America. One of the mainRead MoreJunk Food Taxes1144 Words   |  5 Pagesof implementing a junk food tax was proposed by several experts. The purpose of the tax was to decrease the consumption of unhealthy foods. This tax would also generate revenue earmarked for relevant causes, such as; improving diet, obesity prevention, and nutrition education. The underlying purpose is to focus on maximizing health benefits. It has sparked controversy on the levels of additional bureaucracy, interfering with personal liberties, and freedom of choice. Junk-Food Taxes Introduction

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Fractal Geometry (1425 words) Essay Example For Students

Fractal Geometry (1425 words) Essay Fractal Geometry?Fractal Geometry is not just a chapter of mathematics, but one thathelps everyman to see the same old world differently. Benoit MandelbrotThe world of mathematics usually tends to be thought of as abstract. Complex and imaginary numbers, real numbers, logarithms, functions, some tangible and others imperceivable. But these abstract numbers, simply symbols that conjure an image, a quantity, in our mind, and complex equations, take on a new meaning with fractals a concrete one. Fractals go from being very simple equations on a piece of paper to colorful, extraordinary images, and most of all, offer an explanation to things. The importance of fractal geometry is that it provides an answer, a comprehension, to nature, the world, and the universe. Fractals occur in swirls of scum on the surface of moving water, the jagged edges of mountains, ferns, tree trunks, and canyons. They can be used to model the growth of cities, detail medical procedures and parts of the human body, create amazing computer graphics, and compress digital images. Fractals are about us, and our existence, and they are present in every mathematical law that governs the universe. Thus,fractal geometry can be applied to a diverse palette of subjects in life, and science the physical, the abstract, and the natural. We were all astounded by the sudden revelation that the output of a very simple, two-line generating formula does not have to be a dry and cold abstraction. When the output was what is now called a fractal, no one called it artificial Fractals suddenly broadened the realm in which understanding can be based on a plain physical basis. A fractal is a geometric shape that is complex and detailed at every level of magnification, as well as self-similar. Self-similarity is something looking the same over all ranges of scale, meaning a small portion of a fractal can be viewed as a microcosm of the larger fractal. One of the simplest examples of a fractal is the snowflake. It is constructed by taking an equilateral triangle, and after many iterations of adding smaller triangles to increasingly smaller sizes, resulting ina snowflake pattern, sometimes called the von Koch snowflake. The theoretical result of multiple iterations is the creation of a finite area with an infinite perimeter, meaning the dimension is incomprehensible. Fractals, before that word was coined, were simply considered above mathematical understanding, until experiments were done in the 1970s by Benoit Mandelbrot, the father of fractal geometry. Mandelbrot developed a method that treated fractals as a part ofstandard Euclidean geometry, with the dim ension of a fractal being an exponent. Fractals pack an infinity into a grain of sand. This infinity appears when one tries to measure them. The resolution lies in regarding them as falling between dimensions. The dimension of a fractal in general is not a whole number, not an integer. So a fractal curve, a one-dimensional object in a plane which has two-dimensions, has a fractal dimension that lies between 1 and 2. Likewise, a fractal surface has a dimension between 2 and 3. The value depends on how the fractal is constructed. The closer the dimension of a fractal is to its possible upper limit which is the dimension of the space in which it is embedded, the rougher, the more filling of that space it is. Fractal Dimensions are an attempt to measure, or define the pattern, in fractals. A zero-dimensional universe is one point. A one-dimensional universe is a single line, extending infinitely. A two-dimensional universe is a plane, a flat surface extending in all directions, and athree-dimensional universe, such as ours, extends in all directions. All of these dimensions are defined by a whole number. What, then, would a 2.5 or 3.2 dimensional universe look like? This is answered by fractal geometry, the word fractal coming from the concept of fractionaldimensions. A fractal lying in a plane has a dimension between 1 and 2. The closer the number is to 2, say 1.9, the more space it would fill. Three-dimensional fractal mountains can be generated using a random number sequence, and those with a dimension of 2 .9 (very close to theupper limit of 3) are incredibly jagged. Fractal mountains with a dimension of 2.5 are less jagged, and a dimension of 2.2 presents a model of about what is found in nature. The spread in spatial frequency of a landscape is directly related to its fractal dimension. .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241 , .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241 .postImageUrl , .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241 , .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241:hover , .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241:visited , .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241:active { border:0!important; } .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241:active , .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241 .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue132d2569cc7425b7aae652ea6da4241:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: A View On Censorship And The Government Essay Some of the best applications of fractals in modern technology are digital image compression and virtual reality rendering. First of all, the beauty of fractals makes them a key element in computer graphics, adding flare to simple text, and texture to plain backgrounds. In 1987 a mathematician named Michael F. Barnsley created a computer program called the Fractal Transform, which detected fractal codes in real-world images, such as pictures which havebeen scanned and converted into a digital format. This spawned fractal image compression, which is used in a plethora of computer applications, especially in the areas of video, v irtual reality, and graphics. The basic nature of fractals is what makes them so useful. If someone wasrendering a virtual reality environment, each leaf on every tree and every rock on every mountain would have to be stored. Instead, a simple equation can be used to generate any level of detail needed. A complex landscape can be stored in the form of a few equations in less than 1kilobyte, 1/1440 of a 3.25 disk, as opposed to the same landscape being stored as 2.5 megabytes of image data (almost 2 full 3.25 disks). Fractal image compression is a major factor for making the multimedia revolution of the 1990s take place. Another use for fractals is in mapping the shapes of cities and their growth. Researchers have begun to examine the possibility of using mathematical forms called fractals to capture the irregular shapes of developing cities. Such efforts may eventually lead to models that would enable urban architects to improve the reliability of types of branched or irregular structures The fractal mapping of cities comes from the concept of self-similarity. The number of cities and towns, obviously a city being larger and a town being smaller, can be linked. For a given area there are a few large settlements, and many more smaller ones, such as towns and villages. This could be represented in a pattern such as 1 city, to 2 smaller cities, 4 smaller towns, 8 still smaller villages a definite pattern, based on common sense. To develop fractal models that could be applied to urban development, Barnsley and his collaborators turned to techniques first used in statistical physics to describe the agglomeration of randomly wandering particles in two-dimensional clustersOur view about the shape and form of cities is that their irregularity and messiness are simply a superficial manifestation of a deeper order. Thus, fractals are used again to try to find a pattern in visible chaos. Using a process called correlated percolation, very accurate representations of city growth can be achieved. The best successes with the fractal city researchers have been Berlin and London, where a very exact mathematical relationship that included exponential equations was able to closely model the actual city growth. The end theory is that central planning has only a li mited effect on cities that people will continue to live where they want to, as if drawn there naturally fractally. There has been a struggle since the beginning of his existence to find the meaning of life. Usually, it was answered with religion, and a god. Fractals are a sort of god of the universe, and prove that we do live in a very mathematical world. But, fractals, from their definition of complex natural patterns to models of growth, seem to be proving that we are in a finite, definable universe, and that is why fractals are not only about mathematics, but about seemingly about humans.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Tay-Sachs Disease Essays - Lipid Storage Disorders, Rare Diseases

Tay-Sachs Disease Essays - Lipid Storage Disorders, Rare Diseases Tay-Sachs Disease Tay-Sachs disease is a fatal, genetic disorder of the nervous system. There is no treatment. Tay-Sachs was first identified in the 1880's by two physicians. Dr. Bernard Sachs of the United States has found a "cherry-red" spot in the eyes of a patient. That patient later died. After searching medical literature, he found Warren Tay of great Britain had also reported this (Information, 1994). The symptoms of Tay-Sachs disease appear after about six months. At first, the patient has an over-exaggerated "startled" reaction to sounds and begins to loose control of its head. Eventually, it cannot roll over or sit without help. Dementia (uncontrolled laughter) may set in and the head grows abnormally large. The baby then becomes blind, and dies, usually before its 5th year (Seely et al, 1992). Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal, recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in B-hexosaminidase A. Being an autosomal recessive disease, Tay-Sachs can only be passed on in its fatal form if both parents are heterozygous for the disease. If both parents are heterozygous for Tay-Sachs, there is a one in four chance of the infant having the disease. If only one parent is heterozygous, the infant has a one in two chance of being a carrier (heterozygous) for the disease(Mahany et al, 1994). In 1962, researchers found B-hexosaminidase A is responsible for the breakdown of ganglioside (gm2) in nerve cells. Ganglioside is a lipid found in modest levels in nerve cell membranes. It is constantly being synthesized and broken down. Without the B-hexosaminidase A to break down the gm2, the cells swell up and eventually burst( Diamond, 1991). B-hexosaminidase A is composed of two amino acid chains, the alpha and the beta chain(Navon et al, 1989). The gene responsible for the manufacture of B-hexosaminidase A was originally thought to be located on chromosome 7(Gilbert et al, 1975). It was later determined that the gene for the alpha chain is located on chromosome 15, and the beta chain gene is located on chromosome 5( Chern et al, 1976). In 1991, with the use of a cDNA clone, it was determined the alpha chain gene is located at 15q23-q24(Nakai et al, 1991). All forms of Tay-Sachs disease are caused by mutations in the alpha chain of the enzyme(Navon et al, 1989). The alpha chain of B-hexosaminidase A is about 35 kilobases long and split into 14 exons(Proia and Soravia, 1987). There are at least thirty different mutations that cause Tay-Sachs disease. A majority of the classical (infantile) form of the disease that is found in the Ashkenazi Jewish population is caused by one of two different gene mutations( Triggs-Raine et al, 1990). The first one, Tay Sachs disease [HexA, 4-BP INS, EX11] accounts for about 70% of heterozygous carriers in the Ashkenazi population. The mutation introduces a 4-basepair insertion into exon 11, which causes a premature termination signal. This results in a deficiency of mRNA. The 4-basepair insertion causes a frameshift which makes a termination codon 9 nucleotides down from the insertion (Myerowitz and Costigan, 1988). This mutation is also prevelant in the southwest Louisiana Cajun population. In the last three decades, 8 infants from 6 unrelated families have been diagnosed with Tay-Sachs disease. With 12 heterozygous carriers in the 6 families identified, 11 were carriers of the exon 11 mutation. The other mutation was of a form of Tay-Sachs disease found in the French-Canadian populations. The second mutation is Tay-Sachs disease [HexA, IVS G-C, +1]. It is found in 20% of Ashkenazi patients and carriers. It is a G-C base substitution in the first nucleotide of intron 12. This results in defective splicing of the mRNA(Arpaia et al, 1988). Another form of Tay-Sachs disease is Adult onset Tay-Sachs [HexA, GLY269SER]. This form of Tay-Sachs is caused by an amino acid substitution in the alpha chain of the B-hexosaminidase A molecule. Glycine is substituted serine at position 269 in the HexA subunit. This is caused by a G to A substitution at the 3-prime end of exon 7 (Navon and Proia, 1989). Unlike infantile Tay-Sachs disease, Adult onset Tay-Sachs disease is not always fatal. While the former causes a rapid degeneration of the central nervous system, the latter causes a slower degeneration. This makes a normal

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Maryland v. Pringle, 540 U.S. 366 (2003) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Maryland v. Pringle, 540 U.S. 366 (2003) - Essay Example After asking Partlow, the driver, for his registration the police recognized a roll of money in the compartment and sought to perform a consensual search before allowing them to proceed. The police seized $763 and cocaine stuffed behind the armrest of the back seat. The three acted ignorant of the drugs and money by denying ownership or knowledge of the drugs. This prompted the officers to have all the three arrested, taken to the police station and given a Miranda warning (Carmen & Walker, 2014). However, Pringle relinquished his Miranda rights confessed to own the drugs and money without the knowledge of his friends. Consequently, the trial court sentenced him for possession of cocaine for circulation. However, Pringle claimed that his arrest was illegitimate but was denied motion and had to face ten years of custody without parole. Although, the Court of Special Appeals of Maryland unanimously supported the conviction, the Court of Appeals of Maryland reversed it. The court reveal ed lack of sufficient evidence to arrest, since even Pringle did not show any sign of previous knowledge, control, or authority over the drugs and money. Firstly, the officer’s arrests did not breach the Fourth Amendment by arresting Pringle on probable cause. However, there was not proof of Pringle’s culpability beyond rational doubt. Based on the case Brinegar v. United States (1949), warrantless searches should be founded on reasonableness. The arrest was not reasonable given that speeding was the particular reason for pulling the car and not drugs and money. Consequently, a determination of the events leading to the arrest by the court led to the reversal of the decision to convict Pringle for ten years. Despite acknowledging that the money was innocuous, and not worth consideration as a determinant of probable cause, the court agreed on the existence of probable cause in facts such as driving at